Thursday, April 1, 2021

Safety Engineering -1 (IS – 102)

Safety Engineering -1 (IS – 102)

 What is the Procedure of Manual Handling? | Manual Handling

 Safety Engineering -1 (IS – 102) 


Questions and Answers 


1 What is Manual Handling? 

2 What are the 4 key areas of manual handling? 

3 What is the first rule of manual handling? 

4 What are the risks of manual handling? 

5 What are the hazards of lifting? 

6 What are the 5 principles of manual handling? 

7 What are the 5 common types of manual handling tasks? 

8 What is the most common type of manual handling incident? 

9 Which is the correct way to access the load? 

10 What is the maximum weight a person should lift? 


11. What is the safe lifting zone? 

12 How do you lift heavy things by yourself? 

13 How do you lift heavy things without hurting your back? 

Steps to Ensure Proper Lifting Position and Technique 

14 Why is safe lifting important? 

15 How many steps are there to safe lifting? Or 8 Steps to Safer Lifting and Handling or tips to ensure safer lifting and handling? 

16 How often should you do manual handling training? 

1. What is Manual Handling? 

Manual handling refers to any activity requiring the use of force by a person to lift, lower, push, pull, hold or restrain something. Putting boxes on shelves, painting, gardening, cleaning, writing and typing are some examples of manual handling tasks. Manual handling injuries include: Strains and sprains. 

2. What are the factors or 4 key areas of manual handling? 

When carrying out a manual handling risk assessment, staff should be considering four main areas: the nature of the task, the capabilities of the individual performing it, the characteristics of the load and the layout of the environment. These four factors can be easily remembered by using the acronym TILE 

3. What is the first rule of manual handling? 

Keep the load close to the waist. The load should be kept close to the body for as long as possible while lifting. Keep the heaviest side of the load next to the body. Adopt a stable position and make sure your feet are apart, with one leg slightly forward to maintain balance 

4. What are the risks of manual handling? 

Hazardous manual handling injuries 

  • • Sprains and strains. 
  • • Back injuries. 
  • Soft-tissue injuries to wrists, arms, shoulders, neck or legs. 
  • • Hernias. 
  • Chronic pain

5. What are the hazards of lifting? 

Lifting, handling, or carrying objects at work can result in musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs), including sprains and strains and other injuries. The risk of injury increases when bending, twisting, heavy loads, and awkward postures are involved. Effective ergonomic controls can reduce the risk and prevent injuries. 

6. What are the 5 principles of manual handling? 

Correct manual handling principles 

Assess the task. The safest way and the best technique for performing the task is determined by considering: ... 

➢ Plan. 

➢ Position the feet. ... 

Take a secure grip. ... 

➢ Keep the load close to the body. ... 

➢ Maintain good posture throughout the procedure. ... 

➢ Use the leg muscles. .. 

➢ Use body momentum 

7. What are the 5 common types of manual handling tasks? 

Manual handling covers a wide range of activities including: lifting, pushing, and pulling, holding, restraining, throwing and carrying. It includes repetitive tasks such as packing, typing, assembling, cleaning and sorting, using hand-tools, operating machinery and equipment, and handling and restraining animals. 

8. What is the most common type of manual handling incident? 

It can also cause acute trauma such as cuts or fractures due to accidents. Work-related low back pain and injuries are the most common musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling

9. Which is the correct way to access the load? 

Keep the load close to the waist for as long as possible while lifting to reduce the amount of pressure on the back. Keep the heaviest side of the load next to the body. If closely approaching the load is not possible, try to slide it towards the body before trying to lift it. 

10. What is the maximum weight a person should lift? 


The guidelines suggest that the maximum weight men should lift at work is 25kg. This relates to loads held close to the body at around waist height. The recommended maximum weight is reduced to 5kg for loads being held at arms length or above shoulder height. Maximum weight guidelines recommend lower weights for women 

11. What is the safe lifting zone? 

The safe lifting zone is between knees and shoulders. If the load is below knee level - bend your knees and lift with your legs. If the load is above your shoulders - use a stool or ladder. 

12. How do you lift heavy things by yourself? 

Grip the heavy item firmly, without applying excessive amounts of force as it may cause slippery. Keep your posture straight by looking forward, not below. Do not twist your waist when lifting an object. Push with the legs, while keeping arms straight, only slightly bend in the elbows. 

13. How do you lift heavy things without hurting your back? 

Steps to Ensure Proper Lifting Position and Technique 

1. Plan ahead before lifting. ... 

2. Lift close to your body. ... 

3. Feet should be shoulder-width apart. ... 

4. Bend your knees and keep your back straight. ... 

5. Tighten your stomach muscles. ... 

6. Lift with your legs. ... 

7. Keep your eyes up. ... 

8. Don't twist or bend. 

14. Why is safe lifting important? 

It is very important to lift heavy objects in a safe manner otherwise you could be putting your back, shoulders, knees and other joints at risk of injury. Using safe postures and techniques while lifting will minimize the stress and load through your spine and other joints. 

15. How many steps are there to safe lifting? 

8 Steps to Safer Lifting and Handling 

Our top tips to ensure safer lifting and handling. 

➢ Assess what needs to be done 

➢ Decide what can be lifted safely 

➢ Identify ways of reducing the risk 

➢ Rearrange the task 

➢ Assess the nature of the load 

➢ Assess the work environment 

➢ Plan in advance how the task will be carried out 

➢ Use safe lifting techniques 

1. Assess what needs to be done 

Employees should always consider the weights and distances involved, the heights from where a load has to be picked up or set down, and the frequency of the activity. Never lift more than what you can manage safely. 

2. Decide what can be lifted safely 

Employees will need to make a measured call on what they can safely lift, based on their capability, the nature of the load, environmental conditions and training. 

3. Identify ways of reducing the risk 

Employees should ask themselves: does the item need to be lifted at all? It may be that the work can be completed somewhere else to avoid lifting the item over a distance. Or there may be lifting aids to help them complete the task mechanically. Perhaps someone else could help too. 

4. Rearrange the task 

Where possible, it’s always worth checking whether the task can be re-designed to avoid lifting altogether. If this isn't possible, consider re-arranging the task to minimise the risk. Employees may be able to push instead of pull or break up the distance with more rest points. 

5. Assess the nature of the load 

Can the load be broken up into smaller items to make it lighter? Can it be made more stable, or easier to grasp? Should circular or irregular-shaped items be packed into boxes instead to prevent rolling? 

6. Assess the work environment 

Employees should walk the route first and clear any obstructions. Check the walkway - are there uneven surfaces, gradients or blind corners? Avoid steps, ramps, twists and turns. Consider whether the lighting needs to be improved and what personal protective equipment to use. 

7. Plan in advance how the task will be carried out 

Advance planning and collaboration can help to minimize the risk. Before starting, employees should decide exactly what will be done and how. It might help to have someone walking in front or behind to warn others and watch out for hazards. Plans need to be communicated to others too, including colleagues who work in the vicinity. Pinpoint the optimum time for lifting - perhaps when the area is quieter. 

8. Use safe lifting techniques 

Safe lifting techniques include adopting a stable position and good posture, keeping the load as close to the body as possible, using the legs and feet (not back), keeping the head up, not twisting, and lifting smoothly. 

It’s a good idea to make your training content relevant to the specific employee’s job role. For example, by using real work-related scenarios specific to your company. This will help keep staff engaged and help to embed the right behaviors and practices. 

16. How often should you do manual handling training? 

There is no set requirement, but it is recommended that refresher training should be provided at intervals not more than every three years or where there is a change in work practices resulting in the introduction of a new system of work related to manual handling or use of equipment to handled loads 

102 – Safety Engineering -1

102 – Safety Engineering -1

 Mechanical Power - Material Movement & Warehouse Industry Components  Sourcing

 102 – Safety Engineering -1 

Mechanical material handling 

What should your employees know before moving, handling, and storing materials? 

What are the precautions to be taken while handling equipment? 

What are the potential hazards for workers? 

What precautions should workers take when moving materials manually? 

What precautions should workers take when moving materials mechanically? 

What precautions must workers take to avoid storage hazards? 

What safeguards must workers follow when stacking materials? 

What safety measures should employers take regarding conveyors? 

What safety measures should employers take regarding cranes? 

What must employers do to ensure the safe use of slings? 

What must employers do to protect workers who operate powered industrial trucks? 

What are the safety requirements for design? 

What are the safety requirements for modification? 

What are the safety requirements for modification? 

What safety precautions should employers and workers observe when operating or maintaining powered industrial trucks? 

Are there any training requirements for operators of powered industrial trucks? 

Basic Safety and Health Principles? 

What is ergonomics? 


Handling and storing materials involve diverse operations such as hoisting tons of steel with a crane; driving a truck loaded with concrete blocks; carrying bags or materials manually; and stacking palletized bricks or other materials such as drums, barrels, kegs, and lumber. 

The efficient handling and storing of materials are vital to industry. In addition to raw materials, these operations provide a continuous flow of parts and assemblies through the workplace and ensure that materials are available when needed. Unfortunately, the improper handling and storing of materials often result in costly injuries. 

What are the precautions to be taken while handling equipment? 

5 safety precautions to consider when operating lifting equipment 

Always check equipment over before you use it. 

Stow cranes properly for transit. 

Never position yourself underneath the load. 

Don't work on a truck bed. 

Ensure that your training is up to date. 

What are the potential hazards for workers? 

Strains and sprains from lifting loads improperly or from carrying loads that are either too large or too heavy, 

Fractures and bruises caused by being struck by materials or by being caught in pinch points, and 

Cuts and bruises caused by falling materials that have been improperly stored or by incorrectly cutting ties or other securing devices. 

What precautions should workers take when moving materials manually? 

When moving materials manually, workers should attach handles or holders to loads. In addition, workers should always wear appropriate personal protective 

equipment and use proper lifting techniques. To prevent injury from oversize loads, workers should seek help in the following: 

▪ When a load is so bulky that employees cannot properly grasp or lift it, 

▪ When employees cannot see around or over a load, or 

When employees cannot safely handle a load. 

Using the following personal protective equipment prevents needless injuries when manually moving materials: 

Hand and forearm protection, such as gloves, for loads with sharp or rough edges. 

▪ Eye protection. 

Steel-toed safety shoes or boots. 

Metal, fibre, or plastic metatarsal guards to protect the instep area from impact or compression. 

Employees should use blocking materials to manage loads safely. Workers should also be cautious when placing blocks under a raised load to ensure that the load is not released before removing their hands from under the load. Blocking materials and timbers should be large and strong enough to support the load safely. In addition to materials with cracks, workers should not use materials with rounded corners, splintered pieces, or dry rot for blocking. 

What precautions should workers take when moving materials mechanically? 

Using mechanical equipment to move and store materials increases the potential for employee injuries. Workers must be aware of both manual handling safety concerns and safe equipment operating techniques. Employees should avoid overloading equipment when moving materials mechanically by letting the weight, size, and shape of the material being moved dictate the type of equipment used. All materials-handling equipment has rated capacities that determine the maximum weight the equipment can safely handle and the conditions under which it can handle that weight. Employers must ensure that the equipment-rated capacity is displayed on each piece of equipment and is not exceeded except for load testing. 

Although workers may be knowledgeable about powered equipment, they should take precautions when stacking and storing material. When picking up items with a powered industrial truck, workers must do the following: 

Centre the load on the forks as close to the mast as possible to minimize the potential for the truck tipping or the load falling, 

Avoid overloading a lift truck because it impairs control and causes tipping over, 

Do not place extra weight on the rear of a counterbalanced forklift to allow an overload, 

▪ Adjust the load to the lowest position when travelling, 

▪ Follow the truck manufacturer's operational requirements, and 

Pile and cross-tier all stacked loads correctly when possible. 

What precautions must workers take to avoid storage hazards? 

Stored materials must not create a hazard for employees. Employers should make workers aware of such factors as the materials' height and weight, how accessible the stored materials are to the user, and the condition of the containers where the materials are being stored when stacking and piling materials. To prevent creating hazards when storing materials, employers must do the following: 

Keep storage areas free from accumulated materials that cause tripping, fires, or explosions, or that may contribute to the harboring of rats and other pests; 

Place stored materials inside buildings that are under construction and at least 6 feet from hoist ways, or inside floor openings and at least 10 feet away from exterior walls; 

Separate non-compatible material; and 

Equip employees who work on stored grain in silos, hoppers, or tanks, with lifelines and safety belts. 

In addition, workers should consider placing bound material on racks, and secure it by stacking, blocking, or interlocking to prevent it from sliding, falling, or collapsing. 

What safeguards must workers follow when stacking materials? 

Stacking materials can be dangerous if workers do not follow safety guidelines. Falling materials and collapsing loads can crush or pin workers, causing injuries or 

death. To help prevent injuries when stacking materials, workers must do the following: 

Stack lumber no more than 16 feet high if it is handled manually, and no more than 20 feet if using a forklift; 

▪ Remove all nails from used lumber before stacking; 

▪ Stack and level lumber on solidly supported bracing; 

Ensure that stacks are stable and self-supporting; 

Do not store pipes and bars in racks that face main aisles to avoid creating a hazard to passersby when removing supplies; 

▪ Stack bags and bundles in interlocking rows to keep them secure; and 

Stack bagged material by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the bags at least every ten layers (to remove bags from the stack, start from the top row first). 

During materials stacking activities, workers must also do the following: 

Store baled paper and rags inside a building no closer than 18 inches to the walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads; 

Band boxed materials or secure them with cross-ties or shrink plastic fiber; 

▪ Stack drums, barrels, and kegs symmetrically; 

Block the bottom tiers of drums, barrels, and kegs to keep them from rolling if stored on their sides; 

Place planks, sheets of plywood dunnage, or pallets between each tier of drums, barrels, and kegs to make a firm, flat, stacking surface when stacking on end; 

Chock the bottom tier of drums, barrels, and kegs on each side to prevent shifting in either direction when stacking two or more tiers high; and 

Stack and block poles as well as structural steel, bar stock, and other cylindrical materials to prevent spreading or tilting unless they are in racks. 

In addition, workers should do the following: 

Paint walls or posts with stripes to indicate maximum stacking heights for quick reference; 

▪ Observe height limitations when stacking materials; 

▪ Consider the need for availability of the material; and 

Stack loose bricks no more than 7 feet in height. (When these stacks reach a height of 4 feet, taper them back 2 inches for every foot of height above the 4-foot level. When masonry blocks are stacked higher than 6 feet, taper the stacks back one-half block for each tier above the 6-foot level.) 

Important Safety Measures 

To reduce the number of accidents associated with workplace equipment, employers must train employees in the proper use and limitations of the equipment they operate. In addition to powered industrial trucks, this includes knowing how to safely and effectively use equipment such as conveyors, cranes, and slings. 

What safety measures should employer stake regarding conveyors? 

When using conveyors, workers may get their hands caught in nip points where the conveyor medium runs near the frame or over support members or rollers. Workers also may be struck by material falling off the conveyor, or they may get caught in the conveyor and drawn into the conveyor path as a result. To prevent or reduce the severity of an injury, employers must take the following precautions to protect workers: 

Install an emergency button or pull cord designed to stop the conveyor at the employee's work station. 

Install emergency stop cables that extend the entire length of continuously accessible conveyor belts so that the cables can be accessed from any location along the conveyor. 

Design the emergency stop switch so that it must be reset before the conveyor can be restarted. 

Ensure that appropriate personnel inspect the conveyor and clear the stoppage before restarting a conveyor that has stopped due to an overload. 

Prohibit employees from riding on a materials-handling conveyor. 

Provide guards where conveyors pass over work areas or aisles to keep employees from being struck by falling material. (If the crossover is low enough for workers to run into it, mark the guard with a warning sign or paint it a bright color to protect employees.) 

Cover screw conveyors completely except at loading and discharging points. (At those points, guards must protect employees against 

contacting the moving screw. The guards are movable, and they must be interlocked to prevent conveyor movement when the guards are not in place.) 

What safety measures should employer stake regarding cranes? 

Employers must permit only thoroughly trained and competent workers to operate cranes. Operators should know what they are lifting and what it weighs. For example, the rated capacity of mobile cranes varies with the length of the boom and the boom radius. When a crane has a telescoping boom, a load may be safe to lift at a short boom length or a short boom radius, but may overload the crane when the boom is extended and the radius increases. 

To reduce the severity of an injury, employers must take the following precautions: 

▪ Equip all cranes that have adjustable booms with boom angle indicators. 

Provide cranes with telescoping booms with some means to determine boom lengths unless the load rating is independent of the boom length. 

Post load rating charts in the cab of cab-operated cranes. (All cranes do not have uniform capacities for the same boom length and radius in all directions around the chassis of the vehicle.) 

Require workers to always check the crane's load chart to ensure that the crane will not be overloaded by operating conditions. 

Instruct workers to plan lifts before starting them to ensure that they are safe. 

Tell workers to take additional precautions and exercise extra care when operating around power lines. 

Teach workers that outriggers on mobile cranes must rest on firm ground, on timbers, or be sufficiently cribbed to spread the weight of the crane and the load over a large enough area. (Some mobile cranes cannot operate with outriggers in the traveling position.) 

Direct workers to always keep hoisting chains and ropes free of kinks or twists and never wrapped around a load. 

Train workers to attach loads to the load hook by slings, fixtures, and other devices that have the capacity to support the load on the hook. 

▪ Instruct workers to pad sharp edges of loads to prevent cutting slings. 

Teach workers to maintain proper sling angles so that slings are not loaded in excess of their capacity. 

Ensure that all cranes are inspected frequently by persons thoroughly familiar with the crane, the methods of inspecting the crane, and what 

can make the crane unserviceable. Crane activity, the severity of use, and environmental conditions should determine inspection schedules. 

Ensure that the critical parts of a crane—such as crane operating mechanisms, hooks, air, or hydraulic system components and other load-carrying components—are inspected daily for any maladjustment, deterioration, leakage, deformation, or other damage. 

What must employers do to ensure the safe use of slings? 

As an employer, you must designate a competent person to conduct inspections of slings before and during use, especially when service conditions warrant. In addition, you must ensure that workers observe the following precautions when working with slings: 

▪ Remove immediately damaged or defective slings from service. 

▪ Do not shorten slings with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices. 

▪ Do not kink sling legs. 

Do not load slings beyond their rated capacity. 

▪ Keep suspended loads clear of all obstructions. 

▪ Remain clear of loads about to be lifted and suspended. 

▪ Do not engage in shock loading. 

Avoid sudden crane acceleration and deceleration when moving suspended loads. 

What must employers do to protect workers who operate powered industrial trucks? 

Workers who handle and store materials often use fork trucks, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electrical motors or internal combustion engines. Employers must make these workers aware of the safety requirements pertaining the design, maintenance, and use of these trucks. 

What are the safety requirements for design? 

All new powered industrial trucks, except vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling, must meet the design and construction requirements for powered industrial trucks established in the American National Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI B56.1-1969. Trucks approved for fire safety also must bear a label, or some other identifying mark, indicating acceptance by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. 

What are the safety requirements for modification? 

You and your employees must not make modifications and additions affecting capacity and safe operation of the trucks without the manufacturer's prior written approval. In these cases, you must change capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates and tags or decals to reflect the new information. If the truck is equipped with front-end attachments that are not factory installed, the user must request that the truck be marked to identify these attachments and show the truck's approximate weight— including the installed attachment—when it is at maximum elevation with its load laterally centred. 

What safety precautions should employers and workers observe when operating or maintaining powered industrial trucks? 

When operating or maintaining powered industrial trucks, you and your employees must consider the following safety precautions: 

Fit high-lift rider trucks with an overhead guard if permitted by operating conditions. 

Equip fork trucks with vertical load backrest extensions according to manufacturers' specifications if the load presents a hazard. 

Locate battery-charging installations in designated areas. 

Provide facilities for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolytes when changing or recharging batteries to prevent fires, to protect the charging apparatus from being damaged by the trucks, and to adequately ventilate fumes in the charging area from gassing batteries. 

Provide conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent materials handling equipment for handling batteries. 

Provide auxiliary directional lighting on the truck where general lighting is less than 2 lumens per square foot. 

Do not place arms and legs between the uprights of the mast or outside the running lines of the truck. 

Set brakes and put other adequate protection in place to prevent movement of trucks, trailers, or railroad cars when using 

powered industrial trucks to load or unload materials onto them. 

Provide sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes, and sprinkler systems. 

Provide personnel on the loading platform with the means to shut off power to the truck whenever a truck is equipped with vertical only (or vertical and horizontal) controls elevatable with the lifting carriage or forks for lifting personnel. 

Secure dock boards or bridge plates properly so they won't move when equipment moves over them. 

Handle only stable or safely arranged loads. 

Exercise caution when handling tools. 

Disconnect batteries before repairing electrical systems on trucks. 

Ensure that replacement parts on industrial trucks are equivalent to the original ones. 

What Is Ergonomics? 

Ergonomics is defined as the study of work and is based on the principle that the job should be adapted to fit the person rather than forcing the person to fit the job. Ergonomics focuses on the work environment, such as its design and function, as well as items—such as the design and function of work stations, controls, displays, safety devices, tools, and lighting to fit the employees' physical requirements and to ensure their health and well being. 

Ergonomics includes restructuring or changing workplace conditions, to make the job easier, and reducing stressors that cause musculoskeletal disorders. In the area of materials handling and storing, ergonomic principles may require controls such as reducing the size or weight of the objects lifted, installing a mechanical lifting aid, or changing the height of a pallet or shelf. 

Although no approach eliminates back injuries resulting from lifting materials, you can prevent a substantial number of lifting injuries by implementing an effective ergonomics program and by training your employees in appropriate lifting techniques. 

Monday, March 22, 2021






LOTO is called Lock out tag out .lock out and tag out is one type of safety producer to control hazards.



This is locking method it uses to isolate energy…




This is one type of sin board to indicate problem in working area






Electrical Panels, Generators, Lighting System, etc…




(The Energy of moving parts)….Flywheels, Blades, Fans, Conveyor belts etc…………




Suspended Loads, Compressed air, Electrical Capacitors, Accumulate Bulk Goods, Coiled Springs, Chemical Reactions, Changing States etc…




Presses, Rams, Cylinders, Cranes, Forklifts etc.



Lines, Compressed Tanks, Tools, etc…………



Steam, Hot Water, Fire, etc…..




Flammable Materials, Corrosive Substances, Vapor etc…….


 HAZARDS: -Improper or failure to use lockout –Tag out procedures may result in


1.     Electrical shock…

2.     Skin burns….

3.     Fires & explosions…

4.     Eye injury…

5.     Chemical exposure…

6.     Lacerations & Amputation……

7.     Chemicals releases……

8.     Death….




1)  Locate Work area

2)  Identify Equipment (machinery, electrical and others.)

3)  Identify all energy sources

4)  Determine lock out methods.

5)  Monitoring what is going.

6)  Verify Zero stage energy

7)  Restore energy

8)  Maintain record